What type of experiment did Rutter use?
Rutter’s Study Procedure: Rutter (1998) studied Romanian orphans who had been placed in orphanages, aged 1-2 weeks old, with minimal adult contact. This was a Longitudinal study and natural experiment, using a group of around 100 Romanian orphans and assessed at ages 4, 6 and 11, then re-assesed 21 years later.
What are the 7 stages of attachment?
They discovered that baby’s attachments develop in the following sequence:
- Asocial (0 – 6 weeks)
- Indiscriminate Attachments (6 weeks to 7 months)
- Specific Attachment (7 – 9 months)
- Multiple Attachment (10 months and onwards)
What are the 4 stages of the attachment theory?
Pre attachment Phase (Birth – 6 Weeks) “Attachment in Making” Phase ( 6 Weeks – 6 to 8 Months) “Clear Cut” Attachment Phase ( 6-8 Months to 18 Months-2 Years) Formation Of Reciprocal Relationship (18 Months – 2 Years and on)
What is Rutter attachment theory?
Michael Rutter (1981) argued that if a child fails to develop an attachment this is privation, whereas deprivation refers to the loss of or damage to an attachment.
What did Rutter find?
Rutter et al. (1998) studied 111 Romanian orphans adopted before 2 years and found that the sooner the children were adopted, the faster their developmental progress.
What is Freud’s theory of attachment?
Freud believed the infant will become attached to a person or object that provides this pleasure. Consequently, infants were believed to become attached to their mother because she was the one who satisfied their oral needs and provided pleasure.
What are 4 characteristics of attachment?
Characteristics of Attachment They include a safe heaven, a secure base, proximity maintenance and separation distress. These four attributes are very evident in the relationship between a child and his caregiver.
What is Schaffer and Emerson?
Schaffer & Emerson (1964) conducted an experiment to investigate the age at which specific attachments developed, specifically the age at which they form, the emotional intensity and the person they were directed towards.
What is a Monotropic attachment?
Monotropy is the concept that infants have an innate and inborn capacity to attach primarily to a single caregiver or attachment figure. This concept was proposed by John Bowlby and is a component of attachment theory.
What are Bowlby’s attachment styles?
Bowlby identified four types of attachment styles: secure, anxious-ambivalent, disorganised and avoidant.
What was rutters opinion on Bowlby’s theory?
Michael Rutter (1981) disagreed with Bowlby. He studied a group of adolescent boys to see if there was a relationship between delinquent and anti-social behaviour and early separation due to hospitalisation and also due to family problems.
How important are father attachments according to Grossman?
The study by Grossman found that the fathers who had secondary attachments, had an important role in their child’s development. Yet other researchers have found that children who have grown up with a single or same-sex parent, do not develop any differently from those in two parent heterosexual families.
Why did Rutter disagree with Bowlby?
Critics such as Rutter have also accused Bowlby of not distinguishing between deprivation and privation – the complete lack of an attachment bond, rather than its loss. Rutter stresses that the quality of the attachment bond is the most important factor, rather than just deprivation in the critical period.
What is Bowlby’s 4 characteristics of attachment?
What did Schaffer and Emerson find about multiple attachments?
Schaffer and Emerson found that 50% of the babies showed separation anxiety towards a certain caregiver during the 25 to 32-week period. One month after an attachment was formed the child began to show stranger anxiety.
What did Schaffer and Emerson study?
Schaffer and Emerson (1964) studied 60 babies from Glasgow at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of life using a longitudinal method.
What is Ainsworth’s attachment theory?
Ainsworth’s maternal sensitivity hypothesis argues that a child’s attachment style is dependent on the behavior their mother shows towards them. ‘Sensitive’ mothers are responsive to the child’s needs and respond to their moods and feelings correctly.
Why don t fathers generally become primary attachments?
It is unknown whether fathers don’t become primary attachment figures more often because of the different traditional social roles of men and women, or because women have a biological predisposition towards the primary role.