What is a subsea Christmas tree?
A subsea Christmas tree is a pressure-containing barrier between the well and the subsea environment; – It provides control of the produced fluid through a choke valve; –
What is subsea technology in oil and gas?
Subsea Engineering is a very specialised field which is responsible for designing, building, installing and maintaining the underwater components used to produce oil and gas.
What is a subsea platform?
Subsea Production Systems are typical wells located on the seabed, shallow or deep water. Generally termed as Floating production system, where the petroleum is extracted at the seabed and the same can be tied back to an already existing production platform or an onshore facility.
How much does a subsea tree cost?
The global average cost of a subsea tree is $5.5 million.
What is a PLEM?
The Oil States Pipeline End Manifold (PLEM) and Pipeline End Termination (PLET) systems are typically used in new construction where a pipeline terminates or needs to be jumpered to another location, such as an FPSO, refinery, holding tank, etc. A PLET is the end or termination of a pipeline.
What is the difference between wellhead and Christmas tree?
Many times, the words Christmas Tree and Wellhead are used interchangeably; however, a wellhead and Christmas tree are entirely separate pieces of equipment. A wellhead must be present in order to utilize a Christmas tree and is used without a Christmas tree during drilling operations.
What is a subsea wellhead?
The subsea wellhead system (Fig. 1) is a pressure-containing vessel that provides a means to hang off and seal off casing used in drilling the well. The wellhead also provides a profile to latch the subsea blowout preventer (BOP) stack and drilling riser back to the floating drilling rig.
What is subsea infrastructure?
Subsea infrastructure encompasses one or more subsea wells and the subsystems necessary to extract hydrocarbons. To replace dwindling reserves from onshore fields or from offshore wells drilled in shallow waters, many E&P companies are turning to their deepwater prospects.
What do the valves on a Christmas tree do?
…valves, referred to as a Christmas tree, is installed at the top of the well. The valves regulate flow from the well and allow tools for subsurface work to be lowered through the tubing on a wire line.
What is the difference between a PLET and a PLEM?
A termination unit can be called a “PLEM” or a “PLET.” These units are connection points between two or several pipelines. The Pipeline End Termination (PLET) comprises a single pipeline connection only, while the Pipeline End Manifold (PLEM) is supporting two or more pipeline connections.
What is PLEM in offshore?
The PLEM (Pipe Line End Manifold) is part of the Offloading Terminal at Covenas and belongs to the Cusiana/Cupiagua field in Columbia. The PLEM is piled to the seabed and is connected to the turret and a pipeline to the onshore terminal by 2 submarine hose strings.
Why is a wellhead called a Christmas tree?
Christmas Tree or Wellhead? A Christmas Tree is an assembly of valves, spools, and fittings used for an oil well, gas well, water injection well, water disposal well, gas injection well, condensate well, and other types of wells. It is named for its resemblance to a decorated tree at Christmas.
Why gate valve is used in Christmas tree?
The lower master valve is a gate valve used to limit the amount of flow into the Christmas tree from the wellhead. It is manually actuated in most cases and is kept in a restricted, partially open position during production.
How many types of wellheads are there?
Oil and gas well wellhead equipment can be divided into three types: flowing well wellhead equipment, pumping well wellhead equipment and gas well wellhead equipment. The same principle of well tubing suspension goes for the three kinds of wellhead equipment.
What is the difference between wellhead and Xmas tree?
What is a SSV valve?
Surface Safety Valve (SSV) is a pneumatic or hydraulically actuated fail-safe close gate valve used for well testing or production of oil and gas wells with high flow rates, high pressures, or the presence of H2S.