What is lignin sulfonate used for?
They are used to stably disperse pesticides, dyes, carbon black, and other insoluble solids and liquids into water. As a binder it suppresses dust on unpaved roads. It is also a humectant and a in water treatment. Chemically, it may be used as a tannin for tanning leather and as a feedstock for a variety of products.
How is lignin sulfonate made?
Lignosulfonates are obtained from sulfite pulping processes wherein cellulose is extracted from wood in the pulp industry. The so-called sulfite pulping process involves mixing sulfur dioxide (SO2) with an aqueous solution of base to generate the raw liquor for cooking the wood.
What is lignin decomposition?
Lignin degradation occurs in two stages: (a) non-specific, extracellular depolymerization to aryl and biaryl compounds such as b-aryl ethers; and (b) the mineralization of these latter by specific catabolic enzymes and pathways.
What is the pH of lignin?
The mineralization of lignin and cellulose to CO2 was optimal at pHs 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. However, the optimum for lignin and cellulose solubilization was pH 8.5, which correlated with the pH 8.5 optimum for APPL production.
What is lignin dust control?
Lignin sulfonate has long been recognized as an effective dust control agent for unpaved roads. Lignin is a co-product of the paper industry and is the “glue” that holds cellulose fibers together in trees. Lignin is extracted from wood during the pulping process, which makes lignin soluble in water.
What is ammonium lignosulfonate?
Ammonium Lignosulfonate CAS No. 8061-53-8 is water soluble yellow brown powder.As bio stimulant of plant,usually used as foliar spray fertilizer and irrigation fertilizer.
Is lignosulfonate a surfactant?
The lignosulfonate surfactant is a lignin-based surfactant in its preparation. In terms of their chemical composition, lignocellulosic materials have a major content of 3 different polymers, known as lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose, which are bonded together to form a unified whole.
How do you degrade lignin?
Lignin can be slowly degraded by white-rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produce an extracellular lignin peroxidase enzyme to commence the degradation process. Other fungal strains produce manganese peroxidase and laccase enzymes that are also active in lignin breakdown.
What enzyme breaks down lignin?
Lignin peroxidases (EC 1.11. 1.14) belong to family oxidoreductase, which degrades lignin and its derivatives in the presence of H2O2 (Edwards et al., 1993). These are heme-containing enzymes secreted mainly by higher fungi and some bacteria, which degrade the polymer via an oxidative process (Pothiraj et al., 2006).
Is lignin an acid or base?
Lignins are not acids, though most of them contain certain carboxylic acids, and wood gives off acids as it deteriorates, as do paper and board that contain lignin. This deteriorates cellulose and other sensitive materials nearby, as well as the cellulose fibers within the lignin-containing paper itself.
What is the pH of cellulose?
Our cellulose is essentially uncharged at pH 6. The large increase in the range of the force observed at pH 7.3 indicates that the layer has become charged at this pH value. A further increase in pH to 9.4–9.5 results in a somewhat larger force but the effect is not dramatic.
Is lignin sulfonate toxic?
Corrosion and toxicity towards plants can be readily minimised by pH control and lignosulfonates are non-toxic to animals. When spread on land, there is no risk of contaminating ground water.
How is sodium lignosulfonate made?
Sodium lignosulfonate manufactuering by sulfite pulping The most commonly used bases are sodium and calcium, although magnesium or ammonium may also be employed.In the sulfite pulping process, the two main reactions that occur to solubilize lignin are sulfonation and hydrolysis.
What is calcium Lignosulphonate?
Calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) is an amorphous material derived from lignin. It is a light-yellow-brown powder that is soluble in water, but practically insoluble in organic solvents.
Why is lignin biodegradation difficult?
Lignin does not contain hydrolyzable linkages, which means that the enzymes must be oxidative in nature to degrade it. Lignin is a stereo-irregular compound, which indicates that the enzymes attack the substrate in a more nonspecific way compared to other natural polymers.
Which of the following enzyme is used for the degradation of wood pulp lignin in paper industry?
This newly identified group of enzymes is called dye-peroxidases (DyP), originally named ‘dye-decolorizing peroxidases’ (Sugano 2009). DyP may also participate in the degradation of lignocellulose and lignin, due to their apparent LMP-like enzymatic activities.
Does lignin dissolve in acid?
The form of lignin is soluble in sulphuric acid.
Is lignin soluble in acid?
Acid Soluble Lignin (ASL) is the fraction of lignin that is soluble in 72% sulphuric acid. It is typically present in relatively small amounts in most biomass samples, with Klason Lignin contributing towards the majority of the total lignin content.