What does Bacteroides fragilis cause?
fragilis, termed enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), are an established cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans. The clinical syndrome associated with ETBF diarrhoeal disease consists of abdominal pain, tenesmus and inflammatory diarrhoea.
Why is fragilis harmful?
fragilis, which accounts for only 0.5% of the human colonic flora, is the most commonly isolated anaerobic pathogen due, in part, to its potent virulence factors. Species of the genus Bacteroides have the most antibiotic resistance mechanisms and the highest resistance rates of all anaerobic pathogens.
How is Bacteroides fragilis transmitted?
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Infection results from displacement of Bacteroides spp. or closely related genera from normal mucosal location as a result of trauma such as animal/human bites, burns, cuts, or penetration of foreign objects, including those involved in surgery(1,4,6).
How long do you treat Bacteroides bacteremia?
The duration of prophylaxis or empirical therapy before the development of bacteremia ranged from 2 to 31 days (median, 7 days). Two of the 6 Bacteroides isolates recovered from patients who received clindamycin before the development of bacteremia were resistant to clindamycin in vitro.
How is Bacteroides fragilis diagnosed?
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS Simple identification from blood cultures include Gram stain and growth on blood agar and Bacteroides-bile-esculin (BBE) agar for isolation and presumptive identification ofBacteroides fragilis group (as well as Bilophila wadsworthia).
How do you get rid of Bacteroides fragilis?
Cefoxitin, moxifloxacin, and clindamycin have low levels of susceptibility for Bacteroides fragilis, whereas Piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, and metronidazole have high susceptibility rates.  Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice for the management of infections caused by anaerobes.
What are risk factors of Bacteroides fragilis?
Independent risk factors for mortality were age 65 years and older (p = 0.010), malignancy (p = 0.001), shock (p < 0.001), thrombocytopenia (p = 0.026), and lack of surgical intervention (p = 0.035).
Is Bacteroides fragilis harmful?
fragilis escapes from the gut, it becomes dangerous. B. fragilis does not usually hurt the cells in the gut because of the mucus that protects gut cells. Outside the gut, however, these bacteria can attack human cells and use them as food.
How does bacteremia start?
Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It can occur spontaneously, during certain tissue infections, with use of indwelling genitourinary or IV catheters, or after dental, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, wound-care, or other procedures.
What is difference between sepsis and bacteremia?
Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the blood, hence a microbiological finding. Sepsis is a clinical diagnosis needing further specification regarding focus of infection and etiologic pathogen, whereupon clinicians, epidemiologists and microbiologists apply different definitions and terminology.