What are the anatomical parts of the brainstem?
It is composed of four sections in descending order: the diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. It is responsible for many vital functions of life, such as breathing, consciousness, blood pressure, heart rate, and sleep. The brainstem contains many critical collections of white and grey matter.
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem and what does each do?
Midbrain: The top part of the brainstem is crucial for regulating eye movements. Pons: The middle portion of the brainstem coordinates facial movements, hearing and balance. Medulla oblongata: The bottom part of the brainstem helps regulate your breathing, heart rhythms, blood pressure and swallowing.
Where is the brain stem located?
Located towards the back of the neck, the brainstem is the lower part of the brain, and it is continuous with the spinal cord. Behind the brainstem, the cerebellum (the part of the brain largely responsible for coordination) is also protected by the lower portion of the skull.
What causes damage to the pons?
Damage to the pons most often results from tissue loss due to lack of blood flow (infarct) or bleeding (hemorrhage) – less frequently it can be caused by trauma. An infarct can be caused by several different conditions such as a blood clot (thrombosis) or stroke.
What is the difference between midbrain and pons?
Midbrain is designated as the upper brainstem. Pons and medulla make up the lower brainstem. Important sensory, motor and mixed nerves arise from the brainstem eventually exiting through the cranium to reach its target organ.
What part of brain controls cough?
Either way, the medulla oblongata plays a vital role in the functions of the brain stem. It regulates breathing, blood pressure, heartbeat, digestion, and sleep cycles. This structure is also responsible for reflexes of the face and throat, such as coughing, sneezing, gagging, and blinking.
Can brain stem damage be repaired?
Once the brain stem has permanently stopped functioning, there’s no way of reversing it and the heart will eventually stop beating, even if a ventilator continues to be used.
What happens to a person when the brain stem is damaged?
A brain stem injury can cause dizziness or lack of motor function, with more severe cases resulting in paralysis, coma, or death. Treatment can be extremely expensive, and many victims are unable to work while coping with a brain stem injury.