How many copies of the p53 gene do elephants have?
Unexpectedly, however, the researchers found that elephants have 20 copies of p53. This makes their cells significantly more sensitive to damaged DNA and quicker to engage in cellular suicide.
How does the p53 protein work?
This protein acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it regulates cell division by keeping cells from growing and dividing (proliferating) too fast or in an uncontrolled way. The p53 protein is located in the nucleus of cells throughout the body, where it attaches (binds) directly to DNA.
What animals have p53?
Elephants have 20 copies of a gene called p53 (or, more properly, TP53), in their genome, where humans and other mammals have only one.
Why do elephants have more copies of p53?
Some of the elephants’ extra copies of TP53—called TP53 retrogenes because they were reverse-transcribed and reinserted into the genome over the course of millions of years of evolution—carry mutations that result in a truncated p53 protein.
What is the zombie gene in elephants?
A Zombie LIF Gene in Elephants Is Upregulated by TP53 to Induce Apoptosis in Response to DNA Damage. Large-bodied organisms have more cells that can potentially turn cancerous than small-bodied organisms, imposing an increased risk of developing cancer.
Why can elephants not jump?
Unlike most mammals, the bones in elephant legs are all pointed downwards, which means they don’t have the “spring” required to push off the ground.
What happens to DNA as we age?
Age-associated accumulation of DNA damage and decline in gene expression. In tissues composed of non- or infrequently replicating cells, DNA damage can accumulate with age and lead either to loss of cells, or, in surviving cells, loss of gene expression. Accumulated DNA damage is usually measured directly.
Do humans have LIF6?
Humans also have the PON1 gene and a version of the LIF6 gene (ours is just called LIF).
Do humans have LIF6 gene?
The ability to stop cancer before it starts may have given ancient mammals a survival advantage by allowing them to grow large. Thus, the LIF6 zombie gene found a home in the elephant genome. Humans also have the PON1 gene and a version of the LIF6 gene (ours is just called LIF).
What is Li syndrome?
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an inherited familial predisposition to a wide range of certain, often rare, cancers. This is due to a change (mutation) in a tumor suppressor gene known as TP53.
Can elephants fart?
Elephant farts are so bad that some of their caretakers feed them a special fart-reducing diet. “People who work with elephants have learned to treat particularly potent elephant flatulence by feeding them rice mixed with grilled garlic,” the book says.
Can p53 be reactivated?
The structural studies and work on short peptides discussed above have clearly demonstrated that mutant p53 proteins can be reactivated with regard to both DNA binding, transcriptional transactivation and induction of apoptosis in human tumor cells.
How can I boost my p53?
A study published in “Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science” in 2003 indicates that treating retinoblastoma cancer with vitamin D was able to increase the levels of p53, as well as other anti-cancer proteins within the cancer cells, leading to retinoblastoma cell death.
How do you reverse aging?
You cannot wholly reverse aging—it’s a normal part of life. However, you may be able to slow it down and help prevent age-related diseases by adopting a healthy lifestyle. That includes habits like eating a healthy diet, wearing sunscreen every day, and exercising (Shanbhag, 2019).
Is there a zombie gene?
Do humans have zombie genes? Most scientists believe that there are over 10,000 pseudo or zombie genes. The PON1 gene is a pseudogene present in certain aquatic mammals. It is thought to have lost its function eons ago, appearing to have given these mammals an evolutionary advantage in oxygen regulation when at depth.